Crime and criminology

Ahmet Göker
8 min readMay 27


Unveiling the Complexities of Criminal Behavior

Hello everyone! Today, I’m thrilled to start a blog about crime and criminology, a topic that has truly sparked my interest and curiosity. I believe you will find it fascinating too, and in the future, I hope to explore cyber terrorism and fraudism in depth. Before we begin, let’s take a moment to refresh our understanding of some basic terms that may already be familiar to you. So, if you’re ready, let’s embark on this exciting adventure together.


Crime has long fascinated society, capturing our collective interest and concern. The study of crime and criminology delves into the intricate world of criminal behavior, seeking to understand its causes, consequences, and the systems in place to address it. This blog post offers a comprehensive exploration of crime and criminology, shedding light on the complex nature of criminal behavior and the multidisciplinary field that aims to decipher its intricacies.

Let me first cover what crime is.

What is crime

Crime refers to any act or behavior that violates established laws or regulations within a specific jurisdiction. It encompasses a wide range of unlawful activities, such as theft, assault, fraud, drug trafficking, and many others. Crime can cause harm to individuals, communities, and society as a whole, disrupting social order, compromising safety, and undermining trust. The definition of crime may vary across different legal systems and cultural contexts, but the core concept remains the same: an act that is prohibited by law and subject to legal consequences.

In fact, let me cover the definitions and types of crime:

Crime encompasses a broad range of actions that violate legal norms and are punishable by law. Understanding the different types of crime provides insights into the diverse nature of criminal activities:

A. Personal Crimes: These involve offenses against individuals, such as assault, murder, rape, and kidnapping.

B. Property Crimes: Property crimes include theft, burglary, arson, and vandalism, which involve the unlawful acquisition or destruction of another person’s property.

C. Financial Crimes: Financial crimes encompass offenses like fraud, embezzlement, money laundering, and identity theft, where the motivation is usually monetary gain.

D. Organized Crimes: Organized crime involves illegal activities conducted by structured groups, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, arms smuggling, and racketeering.

E. Cybercrimes: With the advent of technology, cybercrimes have emerged, including hacking, phishing, online scams, and identity theft perpetrated through digital means.

While writing about the types and definitions, lets take a look about exploring criminolgy:

Criminology is a multidisciplinary field that investigates crime, criminals, and the criminal justice system. It draws upon various disciplines to unravel the complexities of criminal behavior:

A. Sociology: Sociological perspectives examine the social structures, cultural factors, and socialization processes that contribute to criminality. It explores the influence of poverty, inequality, family dynamics, peer relationships, and community characteristics on criminal behavior.

B. Psychology: Psychological theories explore individual factors that may contribute to criminal behavior. This includes studying personality traits, cognitive processes, motivations, and mental disorders that may influence criminal tendencies.

C. Biology: Biological criminology investigates the biological and genetic factors that may play a role in criminal behavior. It explores genetic predispositions, brain abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, and the impact of substance abuse on criminal tendencies.

D. Economics: Economic perspectives delve into the relationship between crime and socioeconomic factors. It examines how poverty, unemployment, income inequality, and economic disparities may contribute to criminal behavior.

E. Law: Legal aspects in criminology involve the examination of legislation, legal processes, and the impact of laws on crime rates and criminal behavior. It encompasses the study of criminal law, criminal procedures, and the evolution of legal systems.

Moreover, it’s important to explore the fascinating world of crime theories. But what exactly do these theories entail? Allow me to clarify this captivating subject. In this blog, I will refer to insightful articles as references, which I will provide links to below. Together, we will unravel the complex web of crime theories, enhancing our understanding and embarking on an enriching intellectual adventure. The theory of crime refers to the various perspectives and explanations put forth by scholars and researchers to understand the causes, motivations, and patterns of criminal behavior. These theories attempt to provide insights into why individuals commit crimes and help shape our understanding of the complex factors that contribute to criminal activity. Here are a few prominent theories of crime:

Classical Theory: This theory originated in the 18th century and emphasizes the idea of free will and rational decision-making. It suggests that individuals weigh the potential benefits and costs of committing a crime before engaging in illegal activities.

Biological Theory: Biological theories propose that certain biological factors, such as genetics, brain abnormalities, or hormonal imbalances, can contribute to criminal behavior. These theories focus on the influence of inherited traits and biological predispositions.

Lombroso and Biological Positivism:

In the 19th Century, Italian prison psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso drew on
the ideas of Charles Darwin and suggested that criminals were atavistic:
essentially ‘evolutionary throwbacks’. He suggested that their brains were
mal-developed or not fully developed. In his review of prisoners, he found
that they shared a number of common physical attributes, such as sloping
foreheads and receding chins. In so doing, Lombroso suggested that
involvement in crime was a product of biology and biological characteristics:
criminals were born that way. Lombroso’s theory is essentially a theory of
biological positivism.


Psychological Theory: Psychological theories explore the role of individual personality traits, cognitive processes, and psychological disorders in criminal behavior. They suggest that certain psychological factors, such as impulsivity, aggression, or a lack of empathy, may predispose individuals to engage in criminal acts.

Sociological Theory: Sociological theories of crime emphasize the influence of social factors on criminal behavior. These theories examine how social structures, institutions, and processes contribute to crime, including factors like poverty, inequality, social disorganization, and peer influence.

Strain Theory: Strain theory suggests that individuals engage in criminal behavior when they experience strain or frustration due to the inability to achieve socially accepted goals. This theory highlights the role of social and economic inequalities as sources of strain that lead to criminal responses.

Control Theory: Control theory posits that individuals are naturally inclined towards deviant behavior, but various social bonds and mechanisms can prevent or inhibit criminal acts. These bonds include strong social attachments, belief in moral values, involvement in conventional activities, and effective parental supervision.

Labeling Theory: Labeling theory focuses on the societal reaction to an individual’s behavior, suggesting that the labels or stigmas imposed upon individuals by society can influence their subsequent criminal behavior. It highlights the importance of the social context and the process of criminalization.

Moreover, I would also like to indicate the terms, the importance of research methods in criminology and how they aid us in conducting investigations and various types of research.

Research methods in criminology refer to the systematic approaches and techniques used to investigate various aspects of crime, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. These methods help researchers collect data, analyze patterns, and draw meaningful conclusions. Here are some commonly used research methods in criminology:

A. Surveys and Questionnaires: Criminologists collect data through structured surveys and questionnaires to gather information about criminal activities, victimization, attitudes towards crime, and demographic characteristics.

B. Observational Studies: Observational studies involve direct observation of criminal behaviors, crime scenes, and interactions in criminogenic environments. This method provides valuable insights into the situational dynamics and patterns of criminal activities.

C. Case Studies: Case studies involve in-depth analysis of specific criminal cases or criminal behaviors. They offer detailed insights into individual motivations, criminal methodologies, and the psychological aspects associated with specific crimes.

D. Experimental Research: Experimental research involves the use of controlled experiments to test hypotheses and theories related to crime and criminal behavior. It allows researchers to manipulate variables and measure their impact on criminal outcomes.

E. Data Analysis: Criminologists analyze large datasets using statistical methods to identify patterns, correlations, and trends in criminal behavior. They examine crime statistics, arrest records, demographic information, and other relevant data sources to inform their research and understanding of crime.

I have covered important concepts such as Sociological perspectives, Subcultural influences, and various terms in criminology. While I understand that these topics may not always be exciting, we will soon explore them in more detail. We will unravel their fascinating complexities. Lastly, I came across an interesting report on internet crime that I would like to share with you

In the year 2022, numerous incidents were reported, including phishing attempts, breaches of personal data, and instances of non-payment or non-delivery. Out of these, phishing emerged as the most prevalent issue, although the financial loss associated with it, amounting to $52 million, was relatively modest when compared to the staggering increase of 127% in investment fraud. Investment fraud resulted in a staggering loss of $3.3 billion, presenting a significant jump from the previous year. Interestingly, within these complaints, cryptocurrency investment fraud witnessed a remarkable surge from $907 million in 2021 to a staggering $2.57 billion in 2022. It is noteworthy that individuals aged between 30 and 49 were the most targeted demographic for this particular scam.

In the state-wide rankings, Illinois was 5th highest for number of victims at 14,786, and 7th highest for victim dollar loss at $266.7 million. Business email Compromise (BEC), a sophisticated scam targeting both businesses and individuals performing transfers of funds, topped the list, measuring dollar loss with investment fraud and tech support scams rounding out the top three in Illinois.

  • BEC — $83,883,493
  • Investment Fraud — $75,614,466
  • Tech Support — $31,413,362

As we peer into the future, it becomes clear that cybersecurity will be even more vital than we originally thought. We understand that the roles I mentioned earlier including economic, psychological, and sociological aspects all play significant roles in this field. Threat actors will invest more time in exploiting laws and manipulating people worldwide. However, we can find comfort in knowing that cybersecurity experts are continuously improving their skills and enhancing security tools like SIEM (Security Information and Event Management).

It is essential for people worldwide to be aware and knowledgeable. In today’s technology-driven world, I believe that individuals should receive IT security education starting from early stages such as kindergarten, continuing through high school and university. By instilling a deep understanding of cybersecurity principles and practices, we empower individuals to protect themselves and their digital lives.



Crime and criminology are complex fields that continue to intrigue and challenge researchers, practitioners, and society at large. By studying crime and exploring the diverse theories, research methods, and prevention strategies within criminology, we gain a deeper understanding of the causes, consequences, and systems surrounding criminal behavior. Through ongoing research, collaboration, and evidence-based interventions, criminologists strive to build safer communities, promote social justice, and reduce the impact of crime on individuals and society as a whole.

Thank you for taking the time to read this blog. I would be delighted if you liked, subscribed, and provided feedback. It’s possible that I may have unintentionally omitted something in this blog. If you believe there is something that should have been included, please comment below.

Ahmet Göker | Threat Cases operator



Ahmet Göker

🧑‍💻 Security Researcher || Sociologist